AI and Libraries: A Bibliography

As part of the work I’ve been doing in this space I’ve collected a reasonable, working bibliography that might be helpful to others. I’m very interested in the early days of this area (hence the resources from the 1980s and 1990s) as well as contemporary work. Happy reading.


Alberico, R., & Micco, M. (1990). Expert systems for reference and information retrieval. Meckler.

Aluri, R., & Riggs, D. E. (1988). Application of expert systems to libraries. Advances in Library Automation and Networking, 2, 1–43.

Aluri, R., & Riggs, D. E. (1990). Expert systems. In M. Gorman (Ed.), Convergence: Proceedings of the Second National conference of the Library and Information Technology Association, October 2-6, 1988, Boston, Massachusetts (pp. 169–178). American Library Association.

Arlitsch, K., & Newell, B. (2017). Thriving in the age of accelerations: A brief look at the societal effects of artificial intelligence and the opportunities for libraries. Journal of Library Administration, 57(7), 789–798.

Arny, P. (1990). A prototype expert system for library reference. In M. Gorman (Ed.), Convergence: Proceedings of the Second National conference of the Library and Information Technology Association, October 2-6, 1988, Boston, Massachusetts (pp. 179–182). American Library Association.

Bailey, C. W. (1991). Intelligent library systems: Artificial intelligence technology and library automation systems. Advances in Library Automation and Networking, 4, 1–23.

Bailey, C. W. (1993). The intelligent reference information system project. A merger of CD-ROM LAN and expert system technologies. Information Technology and Libraries, 11(3), 237–44.

Bailey, C. W. (1990). Building knowledge-based systems for public use: The intelligent reference systems project at the University of Houston Libraries. In M. Gorman (Ed.), Convergence: Proceedings of the Second National conference of the Library and Information Technology Association, October 2-6, 1988, Boston, Massachusetts (pp. 190–194). American Library Association.

Bailey, C. W., & Downes, R. N. (1993). Intelligent reference information system (IRIS). In J. V. Boettcher (Ed.), 101 success stories of information technology in higher education: The Joe Wyatt Challenge (pp. 402–407). McGraw-Hill.

Bailey, C. W., Fadell, J., Myers, J. E., & Wilson, T. C. (1989). The Index Expert system: A knowledge-based system to assist users in index selection. Reference Services Review, 17(4), 19–28.

Bailey, C. W., & Gunning, K. (1990). The intelligent reference information system. CD-ROM Librarian, 5(8), 10.

Bell, S. (2016). Promise and peril of AI for academic librarians. Library Journal.

Beta Writer. (2019). Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Machine-Generated Summary of Current Research. Springer Nature.

Boman, C. (2019). An exploration of machine learning in libraries. Library Technology Reports, 55(1), 21–25.

Bourg, C. (2017, March 17). What happens to libraries and librarians when machines can read all the books? Feral Librarian.

Bridy, A. (2012). Coding creativity: Copyright and the artificially intelligent author. Stanford Technology Law Review, 5.

Buckland, M. K., & Florian, D. (1992). Expertise, task complexity, and artificial intelligence: A conceptual framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(9), 635–43. <a href="<635::AID-ASI2>3.0.CO;2-L

Bush, V. (1945). As we may think. Atlantic Monthly, 176(July), 101–108.

Butkovich, N. J., Taylor, K. L., Dent, S. H., & Moore, A. S. (1989). An expert system at the reference desk: Impressions from users. The Reference Librarian, 23, 61–74.

Calhoun, K. (2014). Exploring digital libraries: Foundations, practice, prospects. Neal-Schuman.

Calvert, S. (2020). Emerging technologies for research and learning: Interviews with experts. Association of Research Libraries.

Canadian Association of Research Libraries. (2017). Submission to the House of Commons Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics (ETHI Committee) hearings on the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA). CARL.

Canadian Federation of Library Associations. (2018). Artificial intelligence and intellectual freedom: Key policy concerns for Canadian libraries. CFLA.

Cavanagh, J. M. (1989). Library applications of knowledge-based systems. The Reference Librarian, 23, 1–19.

Cerf, V. G. (2019). Libraries considered hazardous. Communications of the ACM, 62(2), 5.

Chen, J. (2010). Artificial intelligence. In M. J. Bates & M. N. Maack (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd ed., pp. 289–298). CRC Press.

Chu, H.-C., & Yang, S.-W. (2012). Innovative semantic web services for next generation academic electronic library via web 3.0 via distributed artificial intelligence. In J. S. Pan, S. M. Chen, & N. T. Nguyen (Eds.), Intelligent Information and Database Systems (pp. 118–124). Springer.

Coleman, C. (2017a, November 3). Artificial intelligence and the library of the future, revisited. Digital Library Blog.

Coleman, C. (2017b, November 3). Artificial intelligence and the library of the future, revisited. Digital Library Blog.

Conrad, L. Y. (2019, June 25). The robots are writing: Will machine-generated books accelerate our consumption of scholarly literature? The Scholarly Kitchen.

Cox, A. M., Pinfield, S., & Rutter, S. (2018). The intelligent library: Thought leaders’ views on the likely impact of artificial intelligence on academic libraries. Library Hi Tech.

Elosua, J., Brede, A. S., Ritola, M., & Botev, V. (2018).’s project Aiur: An open, community-governed AI engine for knowledge validation.

Enis, M. (2018). Technology: University opens AI lab in library. Library Journal, 143(17), 12–14.

Fernandez, P. (2016). “Through the looking glass: Envisioning new library technologies” how artificial intelligence will impact libraries. Library Hi Tech News, 33(5), 5–8.

Fister, B. (2020, March 9). Libraries and the practice of freedom in the age of algorithms.

Geist, M. (2017, June 2). Toward a Canadian knowledge transfer strategy: My appearance before the Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology. Michael Geist.

Gorman, M. (Ed.). (1990). Convergence: Proceedings of the Second National Conference of the Library and Information Technology Association, October 2-6, 1988, Boston. American Library Association.

Gramatica, R. (2018). How AI will change libraries.

Griffey, J. (Ed.). (2019). Artificial intelligence and machine learning in libraries. Library Technology Reports, 55(1).

Griffey, J., & Webster, K. (2019). Artificial intelligence: Impacts and roles for libraries. v=R4Hk5l7Bvr4&

Harper, C. (2018). Machine learning and the library or: How I learned to stop worrying and love my robot overlords. Code4Lib, 41.

Head, A. J., Fister, B., & MacMillan, M. (2020). Information literacy in the age of algorithms: Student experiences with news and information, and the need for change. Project Information Literacy.

Henry, G. (2019). Research librarians as guides and navigators for AI policies at universities. Research Library Issues, 299, 47–64.

Herron, J. (2017). Intelligent agents for the library. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 14(3–4), 139–144.

Hilt, K. (2017). What does the future hold for the law librarian in the advent of artificial intelligence? Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 41(3), 211–227.

Hristov, K. (2017). Artificial intelligence and the copyright dilemma. Idea, 57(3), 454.

Hsieh, C., & Hall, W. (1989). Survey of artificial intelligence and expert systems in library and information science literature. Information Technology and Libraries, 8(2), 209.

Johnson, B. (2018). Libraries in the age of artificial intelligence. Computers in Libraries, 38(1).–Libraries-in-the-Age-of-Artificial-Intelligence.shtml

Johnson, S. A. (2019). Technology innovation and AI ethics. Research Library Issues, 299, 14–27.

Kennedy, C. A. (2019). You and AI. Against the Grain.

Kennedy, M. L. (2019). What do artifical intelligence (AI) and ethics of AI mean in the context of research libraries? Research Library Issues, 299, 3–13.

Lancaster, F. W. (1993). Artificial intelligence and expert systems: How will they contribute? In F. W. Lancaster (Ed.), Libraries and the future: Essays on the library in the twenty-first century (pp. 147–156). Haworth Press.

Lancaster, F. Wilfrid, & Smith, L. C. (Eds.). (1992). Artificial intelligence and expert systems: Will they change the library. Graduate School of Library Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Lankes, R. D. (2019, July 3). Decoding AI and libraries. R. David Lankes.

Leung, S., Baildon, M., & Albaugh, N. (2019). Applying concepts of algorithmic justice to reference instruction, and collections work. MIT Libraries.

Licklider, J. C. R. (1960). Man-computer symbiosis. Human Factors in Electronics, IRE Transactions On, HFE-1(1), 4–11.

Licklider, J. C. R. (1965). Libraries of the Future. MIT Press.

Lippincott, S. (2020). Mapping the current landscape of research library engagement with emerging technologies in research and learning. Association of Research Libraries.

Liu, G. (2011). The application of intelligent agents in libraries: A survey. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 45(1), 78–97.

Liu, J., Liu, C., & Belkin, N. J. (2020). Personalization in text information retrieval: A survey. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 71(3), 349–369.

Liu, X., Guo, C., & Zhang, L. (2014). Scholar metadata and knowledge generation with human and artificial intelligence. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(6), 1187–1201.

Lynch, C. (2017). Stewardship in the “age of algorithms.” First Monday, 22(12).

Massis, B. (2018). Artificial intelligence arrives in the library. Information and Learning Science, 119(7/8), 456–459.

McDonald, C., & Weckert, J. (Eds.). (1991). Libraries and expert systems: Proceedings of a conference and workshop held at Charles Sturt University – Riverina, Australia, July 1990. Taylor Graham.

Miller, R. B., & Wolf, M. T. (Eds.). (1992). Thinking robots, an aware internet, and cyberpunk librarians. Library and Information Technology Association.

Morris, A. (Ed.). (1992). The Application of expert systems in libraries and information centres. Bowker-Saur.

Mostafa, J. (2018). Documents and (as) machines. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 69(1), 3–5.

Nardi, B. A., & O’Day, V. (1996). Intelligent agents: What we learned at the library. Libri, 46, 59–88.

Neary, M. A., & Chen, S. X. (2017). Artificial intelligence: Legal research and law librarians. AALL Spectrum, 21(5).

Neill, S. D. (1980). Canadian libraries in 2001. Parabola Systems.

Noble, S. (2018). Algorithms of oppression: How search engines reinforce racism. New York University Press.

Nyce, J. M., & Kahn, P. (Eds.). (1991). From Memex to hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the mind’s machine. Academic Press.

Padilla, T. (2019). Responsible operations. Data science, machine learning, and AI in libraries. OCLC Research.

Padilla, Thomas, Allen, L., Frost, H., Potvin, S., Roke, E. R., & Varner, S. (2019). Always already computational: Collections as data.

Peters, S. E., Zhang, C., Livny, M., & Ré, C. (2014). A machine reading system for assembling synthetic paleontological databases. PLOS ONE, 9(12), e113523.

Pinfield, S., Cox, A. M., & Rutter, S. (2017). Mapping the future of academic libraries. SCONUL.

Pulla, P. (2019). The plan to mine the world’s research papers. Nature, 571(7765), 316–318.

Reidsma, M. (2016, March 11). Algorithmic bias in library discovery systems.

Reidsma, M. (2019). Masked by trust: Bias in library discovery. Litwin Books.

Ridley, M. (2019). Explainable artificial intelligence. Research Library Issues, 299, 28–46.

Robertson, C. A. (1990). Designated searchers with expert systems support: A model for the delivery of online information to scientists. In M. Gorman (Ed.), Convergence: Proceedings of the Second National conference of the Library and Information Technology Association, October 2-6, 1988, Boston, Massachusetts (pp. 183–189). American Library Association.

Rolan, G., Humphries, G., Jeffrey, L., & Samaras, E. (2018). More human than human? Artificial intelligence in the archive. Archives and Manuscripts, 1–25.

Ronzano, F., & Saggion, H. (2015). Dr. Inventor framework: Extracting structured information from scientific publications. In N. Japkowicz & S. Matwin (Eds.), Discovery Science (pp. 209–220). 18

Rubin, V. L., Chen, Y., & Thorimbert, L. M. (2010). Artificially intelligent conversational agents in libraries. Library Hi Tech, 28(4), 496–522.

Schafer, B., Komuves, D., Zatarain, J., & Diver, L. (2015). A fourth law of robotics? Copyright and the law and ethics of machine co-production. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 23(3), 217–240.

Schoenenberger, H., Chiarcos, C., & Schenk, N. (2019). Preface. In Beta Writer, Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Machine-Generated Summary of Current Research (pp. v–xxiii). Springer.

Schonfeld, R. C. (2017, July 18). Defining a new content type: The exploratory resource. The Scholarly Kitchen.

Seeber, K. (2018). Teaching CRAAP to robots: Artificial intelligence, false binaries, and implications for information literacy. Critical Librarianship & Pedagogy Symposium, Tucson, AZ.

Smith, D. E. (1989). Reference expert systems: Humanizing depersonalized service. The Reference Librarian, 23, 177–190.

Smith, L. C. (1976). Artificial intelligence in information retrieval systems. Information Processing and Management, 12(3), 189–222.

Smith, L. C. (1981a). Citation analysis. Library Trends, 30(1), 83–106.

Smith, L. C. (1981b). Representation issues in information retrieval system design. ACM SIGIR Forum, 16(1), 100–105.

Smith, L. C. (1986). Knowledge-based systems, artificial intelligence and human factors. In P. Ingwersen, L. Kajberg, & A. M. Pejtersen (Eds.), Information technology and information use (pp. 98–110). Taylor Graham.

Smith, L. C. (1987). Artificial intelligence and information retrieval. In M. E. Williams (Ed.), Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (pp. 41–77). Elsevier.

Smith, L. C. (1989). Artificial intelligence: Relationships to research in library and information science. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 30(1), 55–56.

Sparck Jones, K. (1991). The role of artificial intelligence in information retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(8), 558–565.

Special Libraries Association. (1991). Expert systems and library applications: An SLA information kit. SLA.

Swanson, D. R. (1990). Medical literature as a potential source of new knowledge. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 78(1), 29–37.

Taskin, Z., & Al, U. (2019). Natural language processing applications in library and information science. Online Information Review, 43(4), 676–690.

Tavosanis, M. L. A. (2017). Libraries, linguistics and artificial intelligence: J. C. R. Licklider and the libraries of the future. JLIS.It, Italian Journal of Library and Information Science, 8(3), 137.

Tay, A. (2017, April 9). How libraries might change when AI, machine learning, open data, block chain & other technologies are the norm. Musings about Librarianship.

Tshitoyan, V., Dagdelen, J., Weston, L., Dunn, A., Rong, Z., Kononova, O., Persson, K. A., Ceder, G., & Jain, A. (2019). Unsupervised word embeddings capture latent knowledge from materials science literature. Nature, 571(7763), 95–100.

Walters, E. (2017). Artificial intelligence libraries. AALL Spectrum, 22(1), 21–23.

Watson, S. M. (2016). Towards a constructive technology criticism. Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia University.

Wetherington, C., & Wagner, S. (2019). A comprehensive approach to algorithmic machine sorting of Library of Congress call numbers. Information Technology and Libraries, 38(4), 62–75.

Whitehair, K. (2016). Libraries in an artificially intelligent world. Public Libraries Online.

Wittmann, R., Neatrour, A., Cummings, R., & Myntti, J. (2019). From digital library to open datasets: Embracing a “collections as data” framework. Information Technology and Libraries, 38(4), 49–61.

Yelton, A. (2019). HAMLET: Neural-net-powered prototypes for library discovery. Library Technology Reports, 55(1), 10–15.

Welcome to Library AI

Algorithmic decision-making arising from machine learning is ubiquitous, powerful, often opaque, sometimes invisible, and (most importantly) consequential in our everyday lives.

Machine learning (ML) is critically important for libraries because it offers new tools for knowledge organization and knowledge discovery. It also, however, presents significant challenges with respect to fairness, accountability, and transparency.

I believe that artificial intelligence will become a major human rights issue in the twenty-first century.

Safiya Noble (2018). Algorithms of Oppression.

This blog will attempt to chart ML developments and issues in libraries and to identify trends in the wider AI community that impact libraries.

“The danger is not so much in delegating cognitive tasks, but in distancing ourselves from – or in not knowing about – the nature and precise mechanisms of that delegation”

de Mul & van den Berg (2011). Remote control: Human autonomy in the age of computer-mediated agency.

Libraries have often been instrumental in championing new technologies and making them more accessible. As we adopt and develop ML tools and services, something I think is an imperative if we are to advance our mission, we also need to be aware of the emerging “new digital divide”:

A class of people who can use algorithms and a class used by algorithms.

David Lankes (Director, SLIS, Univ. of Southern Carolina).

Looking forward to this journey. Let me know what you think.